S. O. Rabdano, S. A. Izmailov, D. A. Luzik, A. Groves, I. S. Podkorytov, N. R. Skrynnikov
“Onsеt of Disоrdеr and Protein Aggregation Due to Oxidation-Induced Intermolecular Disulfide ”
Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 11161
We have investigated the behavior of second RNA-recognition motif (RRM2) of neuropathological protein TDP43 under the effect of oxidative stress as modeled in vitro. Toward this end we have used the specially adapted version of H/D exchange experiment, NMR relaxation and diffusion measurements, dynamic light scattering, controlled proteolysis, gel electrophoresis, site-directed mutagenesis and microsecond MD simulations. Under oxidizing conditions RRM2 forms disulfide-bonded dimers that experience unfolding and then assemble into aggregate particles (APs). These particles are strongly disordered, highly inhomogeneous and susceptible to proteolysis; some of them withstand the dithiothreitol treatment. They can recruit/release monomeric RRM2 through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. By using a combination of dynamic light scattering and NMR diffusion data we were able to approximate the size distribution function for the APs. The key to the observed aggregation behavior is the diminished ability of disulfide-bonded RRM2 dimers to refold and their increased propensity to misfold, which makes them vulnerable to large thermal fluctuations. The emerging picture provides detailed insight on how oxidative stress can contribute to neurodegenerative disease, with unfolding, aggregation, and proteolytic cleavage as different facets of the process.