Archive for April 22, 2017

Geosciences, 2017, 7, 24

A. Lupachev, E. Abakumov, S. Gubin

“The Influence of Cryogenic Mass Exchange on the Composition and Stabilization Rate of Soil Organic Matter in Cryosols of the Kolyma Lowland (North Yakutia, Russia)”

Geosciences, 2017, 7, 24


Soil organic matter (SOM) was studied in different types of organo-mineral material (from surface horizons and partially isolated materials—cryoturbated or buried horizons) sampled from the surface horizons, the central parts of the Cryosol profiles, and the lower active layer. We found that the humic acids (HAs) of the cryoturbated and buried horizons showed an increased degree of oxidation and an increment of alkylaromatic and protonized aromatic fraction content. In contrast, the HAs of the surface horizons showed increased values of alkylic carbon components. The content of free radicals was essentially higher in the surface layers than in the cryoturbated and buried layers. While the bulk soil organic matter composition (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and aromatic/aliphatic values) was not essentially different between surface, cryoturbated, and buried horizons, there were essential differences in elemental composition, carbon species, and free radical content. This indicates that the degree of humification in cryoturbated and buried organo-mineral material is higher than in surface horizons and that partial isolation results in relative stabilization of such material in soil profiles.


J. Wood Chem. Technol, 2017

E.I. Evstigneyev, A.V. Kalugina, A.Yu. Ivanov, A.V. Vasilyev

“Contents of α-o-4 and β-o-4 bonds in native lignin and isolated lignin preparations”

J. Wood Chem. Technol, 2017,accepted

An analytical calculation method for the estimation of the contents of alkyl aryl ether bonds (α-O-4 and β-O-4) in lignin was developed. In the framework of the method, Alkyl–O–Aryl type bonds are described as coupled phenolic hydroxyls (OHphen). The method is based on the balance equation including the free and coupled OHphen contents in dissolved and residual lignins, on the one hand, and their respective contents in native lignin, on the other. The free OHphen content is calculated on the basis of the OHphen contents of dissolved and residual lignin, determined by the aminolysis method in the course of kraft cooking of softwood. The calculation results for soluble lignin preparations are in good agreement with the 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data for the solutions. The content of Alkyl–O–Aryl bonds in native softwood (pine, spruce) lignin was estimated at 79/100 PPU (phenylpropane unit). In isolated lignin preparations, the contents of these bonds decrease in the sequence: Freudenberg lignin (71/100 PPU)> Bjorkman lignin (61/100 PPU)> Pepper lignin (44/100 PPU). Dissolved alkaline lignin still contains small amounts of Alkyl–O–Aryl bonds (36/100 PPU in soda lignin and an average of 23/100 PPU in soda-AQ lignin, kraft lignin, and kraft-AQ lignin). Residual lignin which represents the fraction of native lignin with inter-unit bonds resistant to kraft pulping contains 66/100 PPU of such bonds. A relatively high content of Alkyl–O–Aryl bonds (61/100 PPU) is preserved in technical hydrolysis lignins.